Epididymitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube located at the back of the testicle. The epididymis plays a crucial role in the storage, maturation, and transport of sperm. Epididymitis can cause discomfort, pain, and swelling in the scrotum and testicle. It is often caused by a bacterial infection, but other factors can contribute to its development as well.


  • Bacterial Infection: Most cases of epididymitis are caused by bacterial infections, typically resulting from the spread of bacteria from the urinary tract, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or other infections in the body.
  • Non-Infectious Causes: In some cases, epididymitis can be caused by non-infectious factors such as trauma, urinary reflux (backward flow of urine into the epididymis), or inflammatory conditions.


  • Pain and Discomfort: Epididymitis usually causes pain or discomfort in the scrotum and testicle on one side, which can range from mild to severe.
  • Swelling: The affected testicle and epididymis may become swollen and tender to touch.
  • Redness and Warmth: The scrotum might appear red and feel warm to the touch.
  • Urinary Symptoms: Some men might experience urinary symptoms like pain or burning during urination, urgency, frequency, or blood in the urine.
  • Fever: In cases of bacterial epididymitis, fever and chills might be present.


A healthcare provider will typically diagnose epididymitis based on medical history, physical examination, and evaluation of symptoms. Tests may include a urine analysis, urine culture, and sometimes imaging tests such as ultrasound to rule out other conditions like testicular torsion.


  • Antibiotics: If the cause of epididymitis is bacterial, antibiotics are prescribed to target the specific bacteria causing the infection.
  • Pain Management: Over-the-counter pain relievers and supportive measures such as rest, scrotal elevation, and applying cold packs can help alleviate pain and discomfort.


  • Practicing safe sex and using barrier methods, such as condoms, can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections that can lead to epididymitis.
  • Treating urinary tract infections promptly can help prevent the spread of bacteria to the epididymis.


With appropriate treatment, most cases of bacterial epididymitis improve within a few days to weeks. Non-infectious causes may require different approaches to management.

If you suspect you have epididymitis or are experiencing symptoms such as scrotal pain, swelling, or discomfort, it’s important to seek medical attention. A healthcare provider or a urologist can diagnose the condition, determine the underlying cause, and recommend appropriate treatment options based on your specific situation.

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