Kidney Stones (Adult)

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are solid crystalline deposits that form within the kidneys. These stones can vary in size and composition and can cause significant pain and discomfort as they pass through the urinary tract. Kidney stones can develop anywhere along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters (the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder), bladder, and urethra.


 Kidney stones can be composed of different minerals and compounds. The most common types include:

  • Calcium Stones: These are the most common type of kidney stones and are usually made of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.
  • Uric Acid Stones: These form when there’s an excess of uric acid in the urine.
  • Struvite Stones: These can form as a result of urinary tract infections.
  • Cystine Stones: These form in individuals with a genetic condition called cystinuria, which leads to excessive cystine in the urine.


Kidney stones might not cause symptoms until they start moving within the urinary tract. Common symptoms include:

  • Severe Pain: Often described as intense, crampy pain that radiates from the back or side to the lower abdomen and groin.
  • Hematuria: Blood in the urine, which can make the urine pink, red, or brown.
  • Frequent Urination: A feeling of urgency to urinate or discomfort during urination.
  • Nausea and Vomiting: Due to the pain and discomfort.
  • Painful Urination: Burning or pain while urinating.


Kidney stones can develop due to various factors, including:

  • Dehydration: Insufficient fluid intake can lead to concentrated urine, increasing the risk of stone formation.
  • Diet: Consuming high amounts of oxalate-rich foods (such as spinach, beets, and nuts), salt, and animal protein can contribute to stone formation.
  • Family History: A family history of kidney stones increases the risk.
  • Certain Medical Conditions: Conditions like gout, urinary tract infections, and metabolic disorders can increase the likelihood of developing stones.


Diagnosis of kidney stones typically involves:

  • Imaging Tests: X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasounds can visualize the stones and their location.
  • Urinalysis: Testing the urine for signs of infection, blood, and mineral content.


 Treatment for kidney stones depends on the size, location, composition, and severity of symptoms. Options include:

  • Pain Management: Over-the-counter or prescription pain medications to manage pain.
  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of fluids to help flush out the stone.
  • Medical Expulsion Therapy: Medications that can help relax the ureters and promote stone passage.
  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Using shock waves to break up stones into smaller pieces that can be passed more easily.
  • Ureteroscopy: A thin tube (ureteroscope) is passed through the urethra and bladder to remove or break up stones in the ureter or kidney.
  • Surgery: In some cases, surgical procedures might be necessary to remove or break up larger stones.


Preventing kidney stones involves lifestyle changes like staying well-hydrated, maintaining a balanced diet, and addressing underlying medical conditions.

If you suspect you have kidney stones or are experiencing symptoms, it’s important to seek medical attention. A healthcare provider can diagnose your condition and recommend appropriate treatment based on the size, location, and composition of the stones.

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